Health / Natural Sciences
The following information is posted with the permission of the Network for Dissemination of Curriculum Infusion (NDCI).
The four modules selected in this category were prepared by faculty teaching in health related areas. It is not surprising that, with the clear relationship between substance abuse and health, there were more modules submitted in the health related areas than any other. Modules selected provide examples of how Curriculum Infusion can be used to focus on a particular substance (marijuana, alcohol) or on abused substances in general. WMe sample modules from the natural sciences are not included, subject areas such as biology and chemistry lend themselves to the infusion of content related to the abuse of substances. Some of the topics that can be included in these courses will also be mentioned in this section.
Marion Micke's module is focused on marijuana use- however, the format and the activities included could be used with limited modification to develop a module that would emphasize some other abused substance or combination of substances. The module contains a list of "learning experiences" that anyone preparing a module will find helpful. As Marion Nficke points out, " the curriculum design provides a format and activities that can be used in acaden-dc areas other than health education."
The module developed by Bette B. Keyser and Angela K. Bray is designed specificoy to address the use and abuse of alcohol and focuses on the negative effects of alcohol on the family. Included in the module is an instructional strategy for addressing the topic of children bom with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and fetal alcohol effects (FAE). This strategy or some modification of it would appear to be highly appropriate for a biology class. The module includes a Est of print and video resources that will be of interest to faculty preparing curriculum for use in their classes.
Lisa A.Johnson's module is designed to address the misuse and abuse of substances in general. Because the module is part of a first aid course, some of the objectives are focused on caring for a person who has misused or abused a substance. As part of the module, students in the class complete the Healthy Lifestyles Awareness Inventory (HLAI) as a pre- post instrument to determine if there have been changes in group behavior.
According to Leticia Garcia, the Module for Prevention of the Use of Alcohol (NVUA) is designed to address a specific group (Latino students). An examination of the activities included in the module makes it clear that they could be used in courses in addition to those specifically identified as health and for Latinos. One of the activities which could be included in many modules is a publicity campaign in the form of group projects that are exhibited in campus areas frequented by students. Leticia Garcia's module is presented in both English and Spanish.
As mentioned above, while no biology module was selected, few alcohol syndrome would be a topic that could be included in the curriculum of a biology course. The short and long term effects of substances on the various systems of the body could- also be infused into the study of biology (as it already is in some courses). Faculty teaching chemistry courses could have students analyze various abused substances to become knowledgeable about the components of these substances. There are also many instances when faculty can infuse information on substance abuse into their courses by systematically choosing examples related to substance abuse rather than the examples they are presently using.
Assessing effectiveness is a difficult but very important part of the curriculum infusion process. The module by Bette B. Keyser and Angela K. Bray provides data that suggests that some students in the classes where the modules have been used indicate a change in their attitude and a few a change in their behavior. "le these changes in attitude and behavior may be considered by some to be very small, they would be conceded to be very important if they resulted in even one student not being involved in a DUI accident, a date rape incident or an abuse case. Some of the module designers point out that an apparent important result of the exposure to a Curriculum Infusion module appears to be a strengthening of non-using students' resolve not to use or abuse various substances.
SUSBSTANCE MISUSE AND ABUSE: PREVENTION AND CARE FOR HPR 180 FIRST AID
Developed by.- Lisa A. Johnson
Wellness Health Educator Student Health Service
Illinois State University
See Attachment A for Justification of Need for Alcohol, Tobacco & Other Drug (ATOD)
Education/Prevention Programniing at Illinois State University
Definition of Curriculum Infusion
Curriculum infusion is the process of seemlessly fitting Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs (ATOD) prevention content into.courses that are regularly offered. It is the process of thematically weaving prevention materials through an academic course. Material is best designed and presented with the intent of assisting students in questioning their own attitudes and subsequent behavior in relation to alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs. A major ingredient of curriculum infusion is that it involves the faculty. Faculty have substantial potential for impacting the lives of students on campus, including attitudes and behaviors regarding the use of substances.
Curriculum Infusion Project Goals:
The goals of the Alcohol, Tobacco and Other Drug Curriculum InfUsion effort at Illinois State University are to 1) reduce excessive drinking; 2) encourage students to be responsible for their actions and behavior; and 3) promote healthy lifestyles. This is accomplished through the efforts of dedicated faculty/staff who infuse ATOD content, concepts and issues into the subject matter of their courses. Health,
Physical Education and Recreation (HPER) Goal Statement:
The HPER Department fully supports the Project Goal identified above. It is the goal of the UPER Department to develop prevention education and facilitate healthy life styles, including attitudes and behaviors regarding the use of ATOD. There is a demonstrated need for addressing the use, misuse and abuse of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs (ATOD) on Illinois State University's campus, as identified in the results of the Core Drug and Alcohol Surveys administered in 1991 and 1993 (Weller, 1996). The EFER Department is conunitted to infusion within the Personal Fitness and First Aid classes and supported efforts by faculty to create modules and course outlines that use current prevention strategies.
The HPER goal is to create a healthier campus environment and contribute to the health needs of the students by providing specific prevention information not only in decision making but in career planning and professions. This general goal led to specific leaming objectives in HPR I8O First Aid.
Upon successful completion of this course, the student will (as evidenced through written or practical tests/discussions/projects) be able to:
1. Define and discuss the following terms (addiction, dependency, drug, medication, overdose, substance abuse, substance misuse, tolerance and withdrawal).
2. Describe situations in which intentional and unintentional overdoses might occur
3. Document that withdrawal from some substances may cause severe mental and physical discomfort, and recognize that these can become serious medical conditions.
4. Identify the six major categories of commonly misused and abused substances (including stimulants, hallucinogens, depressants, narcotics, inhalants and cannabis products).
5. Recognize signs and symptoms of substance misuse and abuse (including moist/flushed skin, sweating, chis, nausea, vomiting, fever, headache, dizziness, rapid pulse, rapid breathing, high blood pressure, chest pain, respiratory distress, disruption of normal heart rhythms, and even death).
6. Provide necessary supporting care for the victim of substance misuse and abuse, recognizing that initial care does not require knowledge of the specific substance taken.
7. Respond appropriately to a scenario discussing primary points of care for a victim who has misused or abused a substance.
8. Identify factors that contribute to substance abuse, discuss how this recognition and understanding may help prevent substance abuse, and identify guidelines that may be followed to help prevent unintentional misuse or overdose.
9. Successfully complete an optional Healthy Lifestyles Awareness Inventory twice during this course (pre-assessment and post-assessment) based upon perceived need for behavioral change.
Learning objectives #1 - #8 have always been a part of the EPR 180 First Aid Curriculum. Instructors will continue to emphasize these objectives and utilize resource rnatefials from the Health Stop Resource Center (HSRC) as applicable. The ATOD content has been developed specifically for each module leaming objective and will be presented during each of the four units covered in EPR 180 First Aid course. During each unit, the students can elect to complete optional assignments for homework credit which attend to the leaming objectives identified. These guidelines will be presented during the first class meeting and subsequent announcements will be made as related campus activities become available (See Attachment B for Alcohol Awareness Month calendar of campus activities).
Learning objective #9 will be utilized as a required project for Fall 1997 and subsequent semesters. A copy of the Healthy Lifestyles Awareness Inventory is included as Attachment C. A copy to duplicate for use in classes should be submitted to the Health Stop Resource Center in the Student Services building.
In addition to the material to be infused throughout the course units, Sudden Illness IV: Lecture #30 Substance Msuse and Abuse will continue to be a required part of the regular class schedule for all students enrolled in UPR 180 First Aid. Discussion during this "block" will include addressing the assignments presented by the students, during the previous units, in order to summarize the efforts made throughout the class. In order to implement the infusion content for the Learning Objective #9, each instructor will follow the steps fisted below.
Procedural Steps For Implementing Learning Objectives
Day I- Present optional homework guidelines (including ATOD-Attachment, D) and explain the homework credit system (i.e., how points WHI be awarded for each ATOD objective),
Day 2-3 Emphasize UPR 180 First Aid content relevancy by having students complete the Healthy Lifestyles Awareness Inventory (IHLAI), record their score on the Healthy Lifestyles (H-L) Scorecard at the end of the inventory and turn it in. Tell participants that it is not necessary for them to put their names on the scorecard. (The purpose of recording all of the participants' scores is to tally the total class score for computing the class average. This activity will be completed again, at the end of the course, to detern-dne if there has been a change in group behavior.) Tell students to SAVE the H-L inventory questions.
Day 3-4 Present information gained from the BLAI. Answer questions the students may have.
Week 4- Collect optional homework assignments for Objectives #1 & #2.
Week 7- Announce "Alcohol in Sport" lecture sponsored by the Department of Sociology-Anthropology (October 2nd in Bone Student Center, 2nd Floor-East Lounge at 7:00 p.m.).
Week 8- Collect optional homework assignments for Objectives #3 & 94 Instructor Attendance at the Fall ATOD Luncheon, October 10th in Turner 104 (12:00-1:15).
Week 10- Announce Alcohol Awareness Week activities that will result in homework credit (Attachment B)Announce Adopt a Smoker/Quit for a Day option - Great American Smoke Out (November 22).
Week 12- Collect optional homework assignments for Objectives #5 & #6.
Week 16- Lecture (#30) Substance Misuse & Abuse. Peer educators are also available for selected topics.
Last Class Have students complete the Healthy Lifestyles Awareness Inventory (BLAI), record their score on the scorecard at the end of the inventory, and submit scorecards to the instructor.
Exam Week Have students complete the ATOD Student Evaluation (Attachment E).
In order to become acquainted with available materials and videos, First Aid instructors will attend an orientation/open house session (1/2 hour) at the Health Stop Resource Center on Friday, August 15th at 10:30 a.m. If unable to attend this session, the instructor will need to contact Dan Smith (438-5613) to obtain another time to visit the center. The visit WST be completed early in the Fall 1997 Semester.
Each instructor will receive a copy of examples and samples of handouts (Attachment F), video listings (Attachment G), and infbrination on books, pamphlets, vertical files, MRWW health related sites, and the Speakefs Bureau content available which supports related content and methodology. A copy of the Substance Misuse and Abuse: Prevention and Care Module will also be kept on file in the BPER Department Offices (Horton and McCormick), in the First Aid Laboratory (McCormick 106) and at the Health Stop Resource Center (HSRC). It is understood that handouts and other materials can be duplicated by the HSRC, free of charge. Both students and instructors are encouraged to take advantage of this opportunity.
The First Aid and Personal Fitness Module Developers will serve as Departmental resource persons. Responsibilities of the resource person are to document first aid instructors' participation, interpret materials as needed, summarize student and instructor input/evaluation as to the effectiveness of the module, and modify the module as needed.
All module evaluations will be reviewed, summarized and submitted to the ATOD- Project Coordinator after instructor submission to the First Aid Module Developer. Modifications to the module (if necessary) will be made following student assessment and instructor evaluation.
Student - ATOD Module Assessment:
Information will be collected regarding the extent to which the module leaming objectives, as well as the over all goal have been satisfied. An evaluation tool, separate from the expected University course/instructor evaluation forms, has been developed (See Attachment E) to assess the extent to which students understood, assimilated, and related to the ATOD content. This tool was "piloted" in UPR 180 First Aid sections during the Summer, 1996 session. Questions assessing attitudinal change or changes in potential action were included, allowing students to think about and apply information received to potential situations and/or solutions. These should be submitted to the UPR 180 First Aid Module Leader along with the Healthy Lifestyle Scorecards #1 (PRE) and #2 (POST) for each section taught.
Instructor - ATOD Module Evaluation :
Module evaluation (via a 5-point Likert scale/open discussion forrnat) will be made by all instructors assigned to teach BPR 180 First Aid at the conclusion of each semester/session. Each instructor will respond to the following questions (See Attachment H) and submit to the BPR 180 First Aid area chair, before submitting final course grades:
1) Did the curriculum infusion appear to make a worthwhile difference with your students?
2) In your opinion, has a student need been met through the ATOD curriculum infusion project?
3) Do you feel the ATOD curriculum infusion project was worth the effort you gave it?
4) What specific changes should be made to improve the ATOD curriculum infusion project in future semesters at Illinois State University?
ATOD Evaluation: Generic to AD Modules:
Four standardized questions have been developed for faculty to administer along with the IHPER First Aid Student/N4odule Evaluation. Note: these four questions (Strongly Agree - Strongly Disagree) are common to all modules and should not be used to replace the current method of student evaluations. Each student will respond to the following questions (See Attachment 1):
1) Information in this course has changed my attitude and I am now less tolerant of excessive alcohol drinking.
2) Information in this course has influenced me to be more responsible for my behaviors regarding the use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs.
3) Information in this course has enabled me to move toward a healthier lifestyle.
4) Information about alcohol, tobacco and/or other drugs (ATOD) included in this course should be retained as part of the course offering.
ATOD Module Evaluation Results:
Results from the combined flPR 180 First Aid sections will be compiled and forwarded to the ATOD Program Coordinator. This summary report will generate two separate forms. As a sample, Attachment J includes the summary information gleened from the surveys collected during Fall 1996. The same format will be followed in subsequent semesters. Refer to Attachment K for the Module Leader report form for ATOD Student Generic Evaluation Results.
Developed by: Leticia Garcia Rosaly
Director of Pretvention
de Puerto Rico
The module for prevention of the use of alcohol has been designed for Latino students whose first language is Spanish. It can be integrated into an academic course related to health and also adopted in other courses with similar contant. However the module will not change the content of the course and takes into account different learning styles.
i The MPUA was designed and statistically validated with Spanish speaking students, the minority of whom were in their first and second year of college and between the ages of 17 and 25, both males and females with different areas of concentration and from different social and economic backgrounds. It is recommended for use in classes daily.
i: Student needs were identified through use of the CORE instrument. Its use is recommended to determine student characteristics and needs related to the use and abuse of substances by students the module reaches. The data will demonstrate attitudes and behavior in relation to use of alcohol by Spanish speaking students.
iHealth classes and related courses describe the relationship between physical, emotional and social aspects of an individual's health and their importance for a full and productive life. These courses have a theoretical and practical focus designed tc develop understanding of factors that contribute to physical health. They promote individual and community responsibility in lifestyles that support and promote health They discuss the most pressing health problems in the society and prevention of these problems.
Through presentations, audiovisuals, written work and group discussion students wit be able to achieve the following objectives:
--To identify habits harmful to health such as the use and abuse of alcohol.
--To analyze the impact on community well being of use and abuse of alcoho and drug problems.
--To describe their own attitudes towards alcohol and their experiences wit] the use and abuse of alcohol and how these experiences have affected thei behavior and that of significant others.
--To describe the effects and negative experiences of alcohol on academic%. social life and work.
--To undertake collaborative work in a group on a project for the studen community.
--To identify ways to alert the university community of the dangers to heart' that can come from the use and abuse of alcohol.
--To design a publicity campaign directed towards preventing use and abus of alcohol by university students.
Administration of the CORE instrument or another assessment instrument i recommended two weeks prior to initiating the prevention content (20 minutes). The questionnaire will be administered to the students by a person trained to do s( The facility member will be outside the classroom during adn@nstration of the CORI to avoid influencing results and to support the confidentiality of the process. Th students will be told that they are to be part of an academic component of the school' prevention program.
i Use and abuse of substances that are harmful to health
i Use and abuse of alcohol
i Week 1 (2 hours)
i: Building Awareness
Work in small groups (20 minutes)
In groups of five or six persons discuss the following questions:
1. Why do people consume alcoholic dr@*s? What are reasons for drinking and not drinking (pros and cons)?
2. What are my own attitudes towards the use and abuse of alcohol, for example-- moderation or abstinence?
3. What effects, direct or indirect, has the use of alcohol had on my life--my personal fife, social life and education--in recreation and in work?
i:- Exchange of Ideas Share your responses with other group members (30 minutes). One person will take notes and other will serve as spokesperson for the group. Establish rules for working in a group.
i Clarification of concepts Introduce the theme (50 minutes): Definitions, classification and effects of drugs, effects and consequences of the use and abuse of alcohol by university students, presentation of data related to drug use/abuse in the community and at the university.
i--Overhead projector and transparencies, paper and pencils.
-- Report of the university/college's data on student use of alcohol and other drugs and their effect on the university/college.
1. Study the university/college's policy on alcohol and other drugs.
2. Analyze the harmful effects of alcohol on physical and mental health and the social well being of the individual.
i Week 2 (2 hours)
i Introduction of the theme. (20 minutes)
The importance of developing habits beneficial to health, awareness of the dangers and harmful effects of alcohol on health and becoming acquainted with the institutional policy towards use and abuse of drugs in the university/coUege community.
i: Consciousness Raising, Work in Small Groups (30 minutes)
Students organize themselves in groups of five or six as before. Rules for working together in small groups are established. One person will take notes and another will serve as group spokesperson. Instructions and work for the group include the following:
--To identify ways to alert the university community about the dangers of use and abuse of alcohol.
--To select strategies that can be used in a publicity campaign to prevent use and abuse of alcohol on the university campus. The group's campaign will include at least one of the following suggested themes of prevention:
1. To understand how alcohol affects health and productivity related to work and study.
2. To recognize and resist peer pressure to use and abuse alcohol and other drugs.
3. To promote activities that further abstinence and moderation.
4. To create a climate for study in the university community free of the negative effects of alcohol.
i Exchange of ideas and clarification of concepts (50 minutes) Presentation of group projects for the publicity campaign directed towards the prevention of use and abuse of alcohol in the university community. Each group will have ten minutes for its presentation.
i Paper, pencils and literature on prevention
i To prepare a summary of the pulbicity campaign. Students will have 3 weeks to prepare their projects. The projects will be exhibited in the student center, library and other places frequented by students.
i Week 8--approximately thirty days later.
i Administration of the post test CORE Questionnaire on Alcohol and Drugs using the same procedure used in adn-dnistering the pre-test.
Students will demonstrate that they have learned the MPUA module by:
1. Completion of a written summary of the campus publicity campaign, including the basis for the campaign.
2. Presentation of the projects/strategies for the publicity campaign directed towards the prevention of the use and abuse of alcohol in the university community.
3. Exhibiting their projects.
4. Administration of a pre-test at the beginning of the class and a post test thirty days after utilizing the CORE questionnaire on alcohol and drugs. This win provide knowledge of the effectiveness of the module determining if there have been changes in attitudes and behavior of the participating students.
5. Certificates of merit will be conferred to the students for their participation in the alcohol awareness campaign.
Developed by. Bette B. Keyser, Ed.D., CHES
Illinois State University
Angela K. Bray, MS
Instructor Health Sciences
Illinois State University
The goal of this module is to help students recognize the variety of roles alcohol has within the context of family, specifically on future family members, family relationships and individual health status. Fetal alcohol syndrome affects not only the child but family members as well. Excessive alcohol consumption also has negative effects on family relationships. In addition, this module addresses how problem drinking adversely affects individual health status, specifically cancer and MV.
Module developers recognize serious implications for others who may be needing outside support due, to familial drinking problems. For this reason, we have included the objective that students will be able to identify support groups for various family members according to age or relationship to the alcoholic. There is intent to have students recognize the power of addiction and possible ongoing support that is needed for the recovering individual and the family members throughout fife. Opportunities are provided for students who are not binge drinkers to publicly affirm their current responsible behaviors. It is our belief that by hearing themselves verbalize their beliefs and behaviors, it strengthens the existing underlying value system.
• Students will be able to identify alcohol related support groups.
• Students will become aware of the disproportionate number of alcohol related deaths among minority populations.
• Students will be able to differentiate a healthy baby from a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE). • Students will be able to contrast a "healthy famfly" to a family with alcoholism.
• Students will relate how alcohol is a stressor on the family.
• Students will be able to describe how alcohol consumption increases the risk of contracting HIV.
It is anticipated that information provided to and discussed with students will be influential in their actions outside of the classroom. For example, a student whose roommate is in an alcoholic family can suggest ALANON as a support group to help the roommate. For students who have chosen not to drink, it is anticipated that the information provided in this module will strengthen their attitudes and opinions about not drinking.
A formal evaluation of the infused module was conducted in the 1996-1997 school year. Student results from a total of eight sections of the course, Healthful Family Living, follow:
1. I can identify alcohol related support groups.
yes 96% no 4%
2. I am aware of the disproportionate number of alcohol related deaths among minority populations.
yes 75% no 25%
3. I can identify the characteristics of a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE).
yes 94% no 6%
4. I can contrast characteristics of a healthy family to a family with alcoholism.
yes 99% no 1%
5. I understand how alcohol is a stressor on the family.
yes 100% no 0%
6. I can describe how alcohol consumption increases the risk of contracting FHV. yes 89% no 11%
7. To what degree has information in this course changed your attitude about alcohol
None 21% Little 41% Moderately 33% Extensively 5%
Explain how your attitude about alcohol has changed. (Sample of responses)
"I realized that alcohol is not as great as I thought it was."
"It just confirmed what I already knew about alcohol and reinforced my wary/cautious attitude towards it."
"I already knew most of this info."
"I understand more now on how it effects the entire family."
8. To what degree has information in this course changed your own personal behavior regarding alcohol?
None 39% Little 40% Moderately 17% Extensively 4%
Explain how has your personal behavior regarding alcohol changed. (Sample of responses)
"I have basically kept my behavior the same, however, I am very careu about how often and how much I drink."
"I rarely drink alcohol (6 times a year - if that) so I'm not sure how to answer these questions."
"I'm more cautious and don't drink as much as I used to."
"I quit drinking."
"I do not abuse alcohol and was ren-dnded by facts in this class about why abusing alcohol is dangerous and harmful."
Summary of 1996-1997
Student Responses Achievement of Objectives
1. Almost all students responded favorably that the six alcohol related objectives were achieved during the course.
2. All students responded that the objective, "I can understand how alcohol is a stressor on the faaffly" was achieved.
1. Approximately 2/3 of students stated there was little to no change in their attitudes about alcohol, while 1/3 of the students stated there was a moderate to extensive attitudinal change about alcohol.
2. Over 3/4 of the students stated there was little to no change in their own personal behavior regarding alcohol. Most of the remaining students stated there was a moderate change in their personal behavior, while only a few reported an extensive behavior change regarding alcohol.
Listed below is each leamer objective followed by the instructional activity and discussion of how it achieves the objective. The prevention module is taught or infused throughout the course as opposed to a concentrated day or period of. instruction. Active student participation is encouraged through discussion and group work in order to facilitate the leaming process.
Alcohol related groups
* Students will be able to identify alcohol related support groups.
Activity: Through a discussion and review of a video, Traits of a Healthy Family, students are asked to identify the factor that is most sigffificantly different in the family of today compared to the family of yesterday. The correct answer is that the family of today seeks outside help for their problems. Students are then asked to develop a list of support groups of which they are aware.
Discussion: Alcohofics Anonymous is a well known support group for the alcoholic. However, in an alcoholic household, it isn't just the alcoholic who needs help. There is help for family members of an alcoholic. ALANON is an informal support group that is free for the family members and friends of an alcohofic. ALATEEN is a support group for the teenager who is affected by alcoholism of a family member. These support groups provide individuals an opportunity to talk about what is happening at home and how they feel. It allows the family member to meet others in similar situations. Teens can find healthier ways of coping with a parent's or sibling's drinking problem. Husbands/wives can also find ways of coping with a spouse's drinking problem.
Local meetings in the Bloomington/Normal area are provided to the students. ALATEEN meets on Wednesdays at 6 p.m. at St. Patrick's Parish Hall on 1203 W. Locust Street in Bloomington. ALANON meets on Wednesdays at 8 p.m. at St. Patrick's Parish Hall.
ACOA stands for Adult Children of Alcoholics. It is for adults who grew up in a household with an alcoholic parent. They meet on Monday evenings at 7 p.m. at the Unitarian Universalist church on Emerson Street in Bloomington.
Alcohol death rates
* Students will become aware of the disproportionate number of alcohol related deaths among minority populations.
Discussion: In a study of alcohol-related mortality in California, Black-Americans and ffispanic-Americans had higher rates of mortality from alcoholic cirrhosis than did white or Asian-Americans. Nationwide, death rates attributed to alcohol dependency syndrome also were highest for blacks, although a higher percentage of Black.- Americans than whites abstain from using alcohol. Asian-Americans tend to have lower rates of drinking and alcohol abuse than whites.
Discussion Question: Why? There is evidence that not everyone in minority groups who needs treatment for addiction receives it. For example, Black-Americans and Hispanic-Americans are less likely to have health insurance and more likely to be below the poverty level than whites, factors that may decrease their access to treatment.
Students will be able to differentiate a healthy baby from a baby with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS).
Discussion: Does anyone know what FAS stands for?
What does that mean? Does anyone know a baby who has FAS?
How does that baby act?
What does that baby look like?
Discussion: Alcohol is a central nervous system depressant. It is capable of producing abnormalities within a fetus. it may interfere with the delivery of matemal nutrients to the fetus, and impair the supply of fetal oxygen which may cause fetal malformations.
When a baby is bom, there are not any tests that can be performed to tell if the infant has FAS. However, the newborn may exhibit symptoms of alcohol withdrawal. There are certain criteria that doctors use in assessment:
1. Weight and/or length below I Oth percentile
2. Central nervous system involvement (neurological abnormalities, developmental delays, behavioral dysfunction, intellectual impairment, and skuU/brain malformations.)
3. Face with short eye openings, a thin upper lip, elongated flattened midface.
Several pictures of infants with FAS are passed around the classroom for the students to see these physical abnormalities in infants and children. These characteristics are difficult to detect and may not be identified until the baby is older (ages 4-5). When only some of the criteria are met, the diagnosis is FAE. FAE stands for Fetal Alcohol Effects. Does anyone know of a child with Fetal Alcohol Effects?
• FAE is estimated to be three times more frequent than FAS.
• Mental handicaps and hyperactivity are probably the most debilitating aspects of FAS. The children may also exhibit developmental problems, short attention spans, language difficulties and delayed maturation. However, the worst outcome may be a combination of prenatally induced brain damage and being raised in a high risk environment where one or both parents is an alcoholic. Prenatal alcohol exposure is the number one preventable cause of mental retardation.
•The amount of alcohol that produces these birth defects is unknown, that is why it is best to abstain from all alcohol when pregnant or trying to get pregnant.
Alcohol and family health
•Students will be able to contrast a "healthy family" to a family with alcoholism.
•Students will recognize alcohol as a stressor on the family.
Activity: Prior to the day this topic is discussed, students are required to read an article called, "Growing up with alcoholism," by Taibbi (I 993) from Current Health 2 .
Students work in groups of 3-5 and come up with definition or words that define a healthy farn@y and then an unhealthy family. They orally share them and instructor writes the responses on the board.
Discussion: Which list was easier to come up with?
Questions:What makes a family unhealthy?
Alcohol is one factor that can make a family unhealthy. Alcoholism is known as a disease of relationships. Perfect families exist only on television. All families have their good and bad traits; no two families are a like.
In healthy families:
1. The parents are leaders.
2. Family values are known.
3. Members communicate, even in difficult times.
4. There is mutual love and respect.
5. Each person feels valued.
6. Security, love and self-esteem are fostered.
In families where one or both parents are alcoholics, these traits are less connnon. Family members unconsciously fall into twisted thinking, negative attitudes and unhealthy behaviors. Because of this, alcoholism is a disease of relationships. In a family where alcoholism is present:
1. The alcoholic parent cannot take care of family duties, he or she is undependable and unreliable.
2. Children don't know where they stand.
3. The alcoholic parent breaks promises.
4. The other parent tries to cover up.
5. No one in the family wants to adniit there is a problem.
6. The secret is kept.
7. No one gets support for healthy growth.
Activity:A video segment from, "When a Man Loves a Woman" is shown to the class. This video segment shows a common scenario in an alcoholic family with a mother arriving home drunk, being belligerent with her baby-sitter, yelling at her daughter, slapping her and eventually passing out in the shower. The daughter that is slapped is required to look after the younger sister, and eventually calls 911 to get help for her drunk mother.
Post Video Questions:What is the mother feeling during this scene?
What is the daughter feeling during this scene?
Discussion:Not all alcoholic families are the same, but they share some commonalties. The members feel helpless and angry. Alcohol takes center stage in the family's life. The focus is always on the alcoholic member and this slows personal growth for the other family members.
Because of the well kept secret, family members become withdrawn and isolated from other people. The children do not participate in normal childhood activities. This impairs their ability to perceive what is and is not normal and what is and is not appropriate. The family members feel ashamed, make up hes, and become oversensitive. The children in an alcoholic family take on roles:
A. The hero always does what's right and is seen as an over-achiever and over- responsible. The hero provides self-worth to the family, someone to be proud of. As an adult without help, this person is a workaholic, never wrong, has a need to control and manipulate, looks for a spouse to be dependent and can't fail. As an adult, the hero who receives help can become competent, organized, responsible, successful and healthy.
B. The scapegoat shows hostility and defiance, is withdrawn and sullen, and is usually the troublemaker. This person takes the focus for a while or takes the "heat." As an adult without help, the scapegoat often becomes an alcoholic or addict, has unplanned pregnancies or legal trouble. With help the individual can experience recovery from addiction, has the ability to take risks, has courage and can handle pressure well.
C. The lost child is a loner, often solitary, quiet, shy. He or she represents relief, no one worries about him/her. Without help this individual will be indecisive, can't say no, and has no zest. With help, the lost child can become independent, talented and creative.
D. The clown is super cute, immature, and will do anything for a laugh and attention. This child represents comic relief, fun and humor. As an adult without counseling or help, the clown may be compulsive and have an inability to handle stress, With help, this adult can be charming, have a quick wit, and a good sense of humor.
Earlier in class we discussed support groups that would be of help to the alcoholic and the alcoholic family. Does anyone remember their names and meeting locations?
Alcohol/HIV & AIDS
Students wilj be able to describe how alcohol consumption increases the risk of contracting HIV.
Activity: Students watch the video, "Teens Talk About AIDS." The teens portrayed in the video address the issue of how judgment is affected when a person is drunk or high and why they are more likely to engage in risky behaviors, such as sex without a condom.
Post video Question: How can drinking increase the likelihood of contracting HIV?
Discussion: Alcohol may adversely affect normal immune responses that protect the body from disease. Those who drink alcohol may also engage in a variety of high- risk sexual activities. Alcohol may influence high-risk behaviors during specific sexual encounters by affecting judgment and disinhibiting socially learned restraints.
4. A listing of additional resources for the instructor and students follows: Instructor Resources -
Illinois Department of Public Health (1996). Partner abuse in Illinois: Knowing the facts and breaking the cycle. Report to the General Assembly.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1994, January). Alcohol Alert: Alcohol and minorities. N. 23.
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (I991, July). Alcohol alert Fetal Alcohol Symdrome. N. 13
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. (1992, Januarv). Alcohol alert: Alcohol and AIDS. N. 15
Perez, J.T. (1986). Coping within the alcoholic famit . Muncie, IN: Accelerated Development, Inc.
Reyerson, E. (1985). When your parent drinks too much. New York: Facts on File Publications.
Shuker, N. (1990). Everything you need to know about an alcoholic parent. New York: Rosen Publishing Group, Inc.
United States Department of Health & Human Services. Alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs may hann the unborn.
Taibbi, R. (1993, November). Growing up with alcoholism. Current Health 2, 20, 21-23.
Student handouts during class (obtained from the campus Health Stop Resource Center):
Children of Alcoholics: The Truth Behind Hard Love (Pamphlet published by Wisconsin Clearing House)
Children of Alcoholics: Shaking Shadows (Pamphlet published by D.I.N. Publications)
Traits of a Healthy Family
When a Man Loves a Woman (Can be purchased at video stores)
Teens Talk About AIDS (Available through Media Works, Inc.)
An eight question evaluation is given to students at the end of the course. The questionnaire contains five questions that are specific to achievement of learner objectives. Two questions are related to lifestyle changes, that is, attitude and personal behavior. Students are asked to explain how manifestations of change have occurred. The evaluation form follows. The past year's results may be viewed in section two.
HSC 194 Healthful Family Living
Directions: During this academic year instructors of this course are participating in an alcohol education inffision project on campus. Please respond to the following questions by circling the appropriate response. AU responses are anonymous. In addition, data will be reported as grouped data only.
Achievement of Obectives
1. I can identify alcohol related support groups.
2. 1 am aware of the disproportionate number of alcohol related deaths among minority populations.
3. 1 can identify the characteristics of a baby with few alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effects (FAS/FAE).
4. 1 can contrast characteristics of a healthy family to a family with alcoholism.
5. I understand how alcohol is a stressor on the family.
6. 1 can describe how alcohol consumption increases the risk of contracting IRV.
7. To what degree has information in this course changed your attitude about alcohol?
None Little Moderately Extensively
Explain how your attitude about alcohol has changed.
8. To what degree has information in this course changed your own personal behavior regarding alcohol?
None Little Moderately Extensively
Explain how has your personal behavior regarding alcohol changed.