- Prevention Rationale
- Learning Objectives
- Instructional Strategies/Activities
- Methods of Evaluation
- I. Definitions
- II. Systems Approach
- III. Interpersonal Issues
- IV. Family Roles
- V. Recovery
- VI. Dramatistic Perspective
The following information is posted with the permission of the Network for Dissemination of Curriculum Infusion (NDCI).
The four prevention write ups in this section indicate a variety of ways that prevention content can be integrated into English and Communication classes. A common method of incorporating prevention into English composition classes is to have students research and write about substance abuse issues. These modules also indicate how students can be involved as active learners through oral presentations related to their substance abuse research and by collaborative work in small groups.
Sylvia Garnboa had each student in her Freshman Composition class select a different substance abuse topic, research and write a paper on the topic. In addition to learning about their own area of focus the students learned about other substance abuse related issues by listening to required oral reports each student gave on his/her paper and writing in class essays on what they had learned from their classmates reports. Sylvia Gamboa's focus on freshman takes into account the special vulnerability to substance abuse of this group of students.
Dora M. Tippens has taken a very different approach in integrating prevention content into an honors composition course. Students learn the history of substance abuse and study its physiological and social effects, particularly on college students. Their main project is the collaborative creation of a dramatic substance abuse presentation program for a specific audience in the community--6th, 7th and Sth graders. Dora Tippens prevention rationale includes the belief that in attempting to influence others not to abuse substances students w-@l critically examine their own attitudes in relation to alcohol and other drugs.
Kathleen M. Galvin's prevention write up is for an upper division undergraduate course on family Communication. By studying problematic roles and communication patterns "students are confronted with the devastating and long term effects of living with an alcoholic family member." While all students study the negative effects of alcoholism on fat-nily members some students also choose to do a book review required for the course on the stress alcoholism puts on the family system.
Cheri Frey-Hartel makes use of a required group project to integrate prevention content into a course in Group Communication. Students begin work on a panel presentation the first day of class and present and critique the final portion of their presentation the last day of class. The module emphasizes active student involvement in researching, developing, . analyzing and responding to feedback on their presentations on use of alcohol and other drugs. Cheri-Frey-Hartel notes that information alone does not change attitudes and behavior and maintains that"if an individual must create their own arguments, self persuasion can and does occur."
Developed by- Sylvia H. Gamboa
English Department College of Charleston
Students in my Freshman Composition 11 class write a research paper as part of the course requirements. For the substance abuse module, each student selected a different substance abuse topic and researched it, finding at least 5 reputable sources to support his or her conclusions. Each student then gave an oral report of about 3 minutes based on the written paper. The students learned about their own topics through research but also learned about other substance abuse topics when they listened to the oral reports. They were encouraged to take notes on the oral reports. When the oral reports were completed, the students in the class wrote another paper (in- class essay) describing what they learned from the oral reports. They had to use information from at least 3 oral reports in this paper.
By focusing on freshmen, I hope to foster attitudes that will prevent substance abuse before it begins or to encourage substance abusers to seek help.
This module is designed to foster substance abuse prevention by teaching students the following:
i. The causes and negative effects of substance abuse
ii. The treatment(s) for substance abuse
iii. Facts and statistics which will discourage substance abuse
iv. How to find reliable information about substance abuse
V. How to find help for substance abuse on the college campus and elsewhere
- A representative from the CoDege's substance abuse office comes to class to talk about what addiction is, what substances are abused, and the causes and effects of substance abuse.
- The students hear a lecture from a librarian about doing research in the library. The emphasis in this talk is researching substance abuse topics.
- I give the students the address and phone number of the substance abuse office for the county. I have visited this office and discussed topics with the librarian in the substance abuse library. She has volunteered to be a resource for the students.
- Each student chooses a different topic. A fist of suggested topics is distributed to the class for those students who need to have topics given to them, but students may add topics to the list with my approval.
- Students spend the next 5 - 6 weeks researching their topics.
- I check the rough drafts and make suggestions to the students about their papers.
- Students submit their papers for a grade, but keep a copy of the paper to use for an oral report.
- Each student gives an oral report of about 3 minutes to the class describing the findings of his or her research. The oral report must include a visual aid (poster, brochure for each class member, overhead, etc.).
- Students take notes on the oral reports to use for an in-class essay which will describe what they learned from listening to their classmates.
- Students write an in-class essay based on the oral presentations.
- Students revealed what they learned in the in-class essay which combined information from three or more of the oral reports about substance abuse presented to the class.
- Students evaluated what they learned about substance abuse and the benefits of the substance abuse research paper and oral report in a questionnaire distributed to the class at the end of the semester. A copy of this questionnaire and the responses I received from the substance abuse project for English 102 are attached.
1. Handout: Some substance abuse topics
2. Handout: Research paper assignment
3. Handout: Questionnaire evaluating the substance abuse assigrunent. The students' responses are noted on the form.
4. Students' written comments on the substance abuse assignment.
SOME TOPICS FOR THE SUBSTANCE ABUSE PAPER
- Drinking and driving (media effect on, MADD, etc.)
-Substance abuse problems in minority populations
- Diet pills (amphetamines)
- Recovery programs
- Recovery issues (what can cause one to relapse?)
- Halfway Houses
- Prevention strategies
- Substance abuse and HIV
- The date rape drug
- Smoking and aging
- Smoking and cancer
- Chewing tobacco
- Chemically dependent homeless
- Tobacco companies and substance abuse - programming addiction? Libel?
- Dual dependencies
- Addictions and the disabled
- Local assistance for substance abuse
- Ritalin (use and abuse in school, on college campuses)
- Smoking and lung disease
- Organizations fighting substance abuse (efficacy of): AA, NA, CA, COAA, etc.
- Children from high risk situations and substance abuse
DOCUMENTED PAPER ON A SUBSTANCE ABUSE TOPIC
You should have already chosen a substance abuse topic for your documented paper. If you change topics, you must have the new topic approved.
SOURCES: Be sure your sources are reliable. Avoid encyclopedia articles that tend to be too general. Choose, instead, authoritative sources such as Ae Journal of the American Medical Association, books by reputable authors, brochures and pamphlets by such organizations as the American Cancer Association and Alcoholics Anonymous. Do not use only electronic sources; find some print material (at least 2) to cite. You must cite (quote or paraphrase) at least five sources in your paper.
THESIS: Read as much as you can on your topic and draw your own conclusion (your thesis) about your subject based on your reading.
CONTENT: Most of the writing should be yours - your ideas based on your reading. Choose quotations judiciously. Use quotations to back up your conclusions. Do not quote or paraphrase to move the paper along or to pad the paper. Quote only what is important.
CONCLUSION: Draw a conclusion at the end of the paper. Do not just summarize what you have already said.
LENGTH: 600 (minimum) -800 (maximum) words
ORAL REPORT: Don't forget that you will be giving an oral report of 3-5 minutes on your topic. You will need a visual aid ( time fine, pie chart, graph, brochure, poster, handout, overhead, etc.). You may make your own visual aid or use one you find while researching your topic.
WHAT TO TURN IN:
1. your first draft
2. photocopies of the passages that you quoted or phrased , including bibliographic information
3. passages that you quoted or paraphrased clearly marked on the photocopy
4. your essay, including the works cited page
-March 11- discussion of the substance abuse paper
-March 12 - 14 - conferences (bring a typed, rough draft to my office, including the works cited page) Sign up for the conference ahead of time. Wednesday , Thursday, & Friday- 10: 00- 1 2:00, 1:00 - 4: 00 March 18 - discussion of the oral report
-March 25 & 27 - 3 minute oral reports due
- April I - in-class essay on substance abuse (based on the oral reports from March 25 and March 27)
SOME REPRESENTATIVE STUDENT RESPONSES:
I know some friends who are on drugs, finding out about certain drugs helps me help them.
[The paper is] very helpful.
I realized that one of my friends was an alcoholic and that there are many cures for the disease.
I stopped smoking and it has been almost 5 weeks now.
It is something fun and educational to write about.
People seemed to enjoy the research and asked many good questions.
There is someone in my family that I worry about being an alcoholic and now I know the signs.
My stepfather is an alcoholic so learning about alcoholism helped me understand him.
The information encouraged me to dispel myths and research the facts. I learned that there is hope for my alcoholic father.
It reaffirmed my desire to help my younger brother with his ongoing battle with alcoholism.
I got one of my fiiends to quit smoking.
I have an alcoholic in my family and I learned things that could be helpfw for him.
My sister is anorexic and I got up enough courage to finally sit down and talk with her about it.
I look at people who abuse drugs and I don't care if they think of me less if I don't do them.
You learn why you shouldn't use drugs instead of adults just saying no.
I found out about how hamiful these substances are which has helped me not to abuse them.
I was able to share vital and interesting ideas about a particular substance abused by fellow roommates.
Dr. Dora M. Tippins
Instructor English and Speech
McHenry County College
WAYS IN WHICH THE DESIGNED CURRICULUM ENCOURAGES SUBSTANCE ABUSE PREVENTION:
* Assesses personal knowledge and attitudes toward substance abuse through pre- and post-inventories.
* Presents social and historical contexts for different types of substance abuse.
* Presents background information about negative impacts (physiological and social) of substance abuse.
* Presents statistical information about local instances of substance abuse.
* Addresses the ambivalence toward and the denial of substance abuse.
* Analyzes the efficacy of tactics used in different prevention models.
WAYS IN WHICH THE DESIGNED CURRICULUM SUPPORTS CHOICES / EMPOWERS LEARNERS WHO ARE NOT BINGE DRINKING / USING ILLICIT DRUGS:
* Encourages alternative forms of stress reduction and / or problem- solving.
* Helps learners recognize their lifestyle choices as components of their self identity (self-identity being the theme of the course).
* Requires learners to do original and self-directed research on substance abuse problems in the local community.
* Requires learners to collaboratively create a communty prevention program to address the substance abuse problem of their choice.
* Requires collaborative brainstorming, researching, critical evaluating, problem solving, synthesizing in order to create a community prevention program.
* Requires audience analysis of local community cultural strengths in creating a community prevention model.
* Enhances self-esteem / positive self-identity in working individually and as a team in creating a prevention model that can be implemented locally.
WHAT WERE LEARNERS EXPECTED TO LEARN?
* To assess personal knowledge and attitudes toward substance abuse both before and after the project is completed.
* To understand the history of substance use and abuse++.
* To understand the physiological and social effects of substance abuse++.
* To understand substance abuse, particularly among couege-age people.
* To develop an awareness of effective and ineffective tactics being used in substance abuse prevention models.
* To demonstrate skills in collaborative problem solving, To demonstrate skills in collaborative writing.
* To demonstrate skills in creating argumentative and persuasive strategies.
* To demonstrate skills in using the NILA documentation format.
* To develop an awareness of substance abuse prevention as a self- identity issue.
++ The group will determine which substance abuse to study in depth.
WHAT HAVE LEARNERS DISCOVERED?
* To target a specific audience (6th, 7th, 8th graders) and create a dramatic but informative program ("CAP IT") for them about the dangerous effects of inhalant abuse.
* To create and administer questionnaires (pre- and post-program) for a targeted audience.
* To critically analyze the efficacy of other prevention models.
* To develop a prevention model based on the 12 steps recommended by the Prevention Programs that Work model (Office of Substance Abuse Prevention).
* To document research using the MLA system.
* To create an argument documented by evidence statistics and case studies), and logical reasoning for including in their performance for the targeted audience a combination of music, drama, graphic aids, and a simulated newscast.
* To create valid persuasive strategies for the targeted audience by using such techniques as common ground, humor, anticipatory objections, demographics, and psychographics.
* To find current and definitive research to support their strategies for what to include in the "CAP IT" program (See ATTACHMENT A - WORKS CITED).
* To find appropriate social agencies in the county to recommend to adolescents for addressing their substance abuse situations.
* To connect with national programs such as National Inhalants Week.
* To suggest several alternatives, in addition to in-school professionals, for culturally diverse adolescents.
* To market and promote the "CAP IT" presentation to all appropriate schools in McHenry County.
WHAT CHANGES IN ATTITUDES, KNOWLEDGE, OR SKILLS HAVE LEARNERS OBSERVED?
* A sense of community in their collaborative efforts, in addition to their individual skills and interests (e.g. dancing, drawing, organizing, writing).
* An understanding of the complexities of collaborative decision making.
* A sense of responsibility to volunteer to help the adolescents in their geographic communities with substance abuse information prevention.
* An understanding of the differences in skills required between subjective and objective critical evaluating
* An understanding of the problems of adolescents and their language being used in social interactions.
* An awareness that choosing to abuse or not abuse substances is an indicator of one's self-identity.
The following are quoted directly from anonymous leamer evaluations about the project and what they learned:
"I think, on the whole, it all worked out well. We all were a little nervous about how this would work, feeling slightly helpless about how things were going. What we did, however, is no small accompfishment. Not just the program that we put together, but the fact that 12 students, who barely knew each other, started from scratch and came up with a model program that none of us would be ashamed to put on, and could possibly change some junior high student's life. "
"People sometimes believe the fallacy that it is easier to get things done in a group because there are more people to do the work. This is very far from the truth. It is more difficult to work in a group. It takes more time, patience, and resilience. I can testify to that."
"Before our project on substance abuse-- in this case, inhalant use-- was begun I did not know the symptoms and percentage of deaths attributed to inhalant abuse. I was aware of the fact that some people sniffed substances, such as glue and markers, to get high, but I did not know that the predominant age group that sniffed inhalants was junior high-aged chfldren. Before I investigated the subject finther, I did not know that the slang term for sniffing inhalants was 'huffing'. Also, I did not realize that huffing could become as common as LSD use in the future."
"I suppose that by choosing not to use inhalants, and choosing to educate others regarding their dangers, I feel that I am a concerned, self-controfled, aware, and stable individual. I am concerned over the well being of young children and understand the pressures which they are going through. Yet, I would Eke to show them a more healthy means of searching for their self-identity."
WHAT CRANGES IN ATTITUDE, KNOWLEDGE, OR SKILLS HAVE-I OBSERVED IN THE LEARNERS?
* A contagious enthusiasm for helping 6th, 7th and 8th graders choose not to abuse inhalants (Only the research project was required, but learners chose to also create a dramatic program, "CAP IT," and to perform it.).
* An understanding of the need for valid research when preparing a prevention model.
* An understanding of how documented research enables replicability of the program by others.
* How 12 very different Honors learners can work as a team and still be self-directed.
* How the group process-- nonning, storming, conforming, performing- - can cause confusion and hurt as well as creativity. * How learners who are usually very concerned about their grades can behave altruistically and be risk-takers.
* How learners can teach each other (to dance, draw, write, organize, research).
* How learners can respect process as well as content.
* How learners can understand how substance abuse prevention fits sean-dessly into the Honors Program theme of self-identity.
The following specific observations are part of the feedback which I gave the learners in my evaluation of their written collaborative research project to create a substance abuse prevention model:
"The arguments for the various components of your model are especially strong. You reached out for information from many more areas than I had expected. I was especially impressed with choices such as:
* The guidelines from OSAP for prevention models that have worked.
* The societal trends such as "slacker buddies" that you were mirroring.
* The rationale for using the news media because of their subtle, often overlooked power over people's minds.
* The teaching strategies needed for this particular age group, for using drama (as opposed to lecture) to increase retention, and for demon- strating the importance of peer influence.
* The use of questionnaires to gauge short-term effects of the program and to plan for long-term impact.
* The use of statistics to present the facts and to diminish the "personal fable" of young persons.
* The use of case studies to make the statistics assume real bodies and situations.
* The use of music and dance to energize the content and the process.
* The use of graphic aids to create a cartoon-type character that could easfly be identified with, and the use of a logo and a slogan for quick and easy memory retention (If funds were available, you could have a Cap It mascot, Cap It buttons, etc.).
* The use of the 12-step program for prevention models as the overall criteria for your own model.
* The use of people and a hot line for where people could always go for help for alternatives and / or to increase self-esteem. * The recognition of the need for county as well as national ties to help give your model even more credibility.
* The recognition of the importance of creating a model that is replicable.
In essence, I am very impressed with the amount of background planning and research that went into supporting your model. You are to be commended for giving yourselves permission to incorporate everyone's talents . . . And you are to be applauded for really wanting to perform the model, even though it meant a lot of additional work that wasn't really part of the assignment.
I empathize with your frustrations in group dynamics and in collaborative writing. I have also been frustrated because of having to 'let go' of the control in a classroom-- to assist without intervening. But we have all become stronger because of our roles, if we've realized that cooperative efforts are more effective than individual efforts in problem solving.
You have been participating in higher order skills of
- critical evaluating,
- adjusting to others' intellectual perspectives,
And, hopefiiuy, you have come to realize that knowledge is not just input and storage. It is meaning as a result of collective effort. Thank you for making my experience rich. You deserve a rest!
-Arbetter, Sandra. "Am I Normal?: Those Teen Years." Current Health 21 (2 April 1995): 6 (7).
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"Dangerous lnhalants Are lncreasingly Popular Among Adolescents. The Brown University Child and Adolescent Behavior
9 August 1993: 1.
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- Glowa, John. The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs: Inhalants. New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1986.
- Hermann, Brenda. "Fatal Attraction: Some Kids Taking Deadly Risk with Inhalants. Chicago Tribune 13 July, 1993: 3.
- Johnston, Madeline S. "Sniffing Madness: One of the Most Dangerous Groups of Abused Drugs Is Also One of the Most Readily Available." Vibrant Life 9 March - April 1993: 10.
- Kirby, Joseph A. "Inhalant Use Draws Concern: Death of Teenager Spotlights the Danger of Laughing Gas." Chicago Tribune 23 November, 1994: 10 (2).
- Landers, Ann. "Abuse of Inhalants Spreads Among Teens." Chicago Tribune 24 March, 1995: 3.
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- Lovece, Frank. "Joined At the Hp." Entertainment Weekly 3 June 1994: 62-63.
- MacLennan, Anne. "Sniffing: Endemic Noon-Problem'." The Journal April 1993: 1.
- McCaslin, Nellie. Creative Drama in the Classroom. 4th ed. New York: Longman Inc., 1984.
- Monroe, Judy. "Inhalants: Dangerous Highs. " Current Health September 1995: 16- 19.
-Office for Substance Abuse Prevention. Prevention Plus II: Tools For Creating and Sustaining Drug Free Communities . Rockville, MD: Office for Substance AbusePrevention, 1989.
-Perloff, Richard M. The Dynamics of Persuasion. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1993.
- Peterson, Evelyn. "Evening. Health. Parenting. Letters." Chicago Tribune July 1995: 7.
- Santrock, John W., and Steven R. Yussen. Child Development. 5th ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm.C. Brown Publishers 1992.
- Sokol, Jacob, M.D. "Glue Sniffing." Narcotic Educational Foundation of America.
- Spencer, W.R., M.D. "Substance Abuse Identification Guide." Health EDCO 1994: 3."Substance Abuse." USA Today December 1989: 9.
-Thornton, Denise. "Drug Poll Tags 10% of Kids As High Risk." Chicago Tribune 17 February 1995: 3.
-Weimer, Richard C. Statistics. 2nd ed. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown Publishers, 1993.
-Wentzel, Kathryn R. "Relations of School Goal Pursuit to Social Acceptance, Classroom Behavior, and Perceived Social Support." Journal of Educational Paychology 86.2(June 1994): 173-182.
-Williams, Thomas R. "What's So Different About Visuals?" Technical Communication 40 (November 1993): 669 (8).
Kathleen M. Galvin Ph. D.
Professor Communication Studies
The attached module on "Communication Patterns in Families with an Alcoholic Member" is used in an undergraduate Communication Studies course entitled "Family Communication." It is an upper division undergraduate course.
In this class students study the family as a communication system, the diversity of family communication patterns and the underlying forces which influence communication pattern development, such as culture/ethnicity, family-of-origin experiences and family stresses. The unit on managing family stress relies heavily on the Double ABCX Model of Family Stress developed by McCubbin and Patterson. After an introduction of the model I always use a particular stress to develop the elements and their interrelationships. Over the years I have used stresses such as raising a learning disabled child or dealing with economic reversals. A number of years ago I chose the stress of dealing with an active alcoholic in the farffily. The response to the unit was overwhelming; more students were actively engaged in the .content than ever before and a number stopped to discuss aspects of the content. It became clear that some had lived, or were living in alcoholic systems; others could apply the concepts to friends' families. A few indicated concern about the effect of their dri@ng on a family relationship. Since that time I have incorporated a week- long unit on communication patterns in alcoholism in families into the course as an extension of the stress model. This module represents an explicit attempt to address the topic of alcoholism and its impact on family interaction. The attached set of teaching materials indicates that the main topics include: definition of terms; systems perspective; characteristics of alcoholics and their families ; family roles- recovery patterns.
This module represents an attempt to raise awareness of the impact of alcoholism on dyadic family relationships as well as the entire family system. Students are confronted with the devastating and long-term effects of living with an alcoholic family member. The module introduces students to family-oriented approaches to recovery. By implication the module addresses prevention by raising these issues: genetic predisposition to alcoholism, the negative impact of alcoholism on the individual and the family and the long term effects of alcoholism on family relationships, even in recovery.
Students should be able to:
-Explain how alcoholism affects the entire farffily system.
-Describe the types and communication dimensions of roles assumed by members of an alcoholic family.
-Discuss the communication patterns which develop in alcoholic systems, including, a focus on secrets, rules and boundaries. -Articulate reasons why treatment should include a fanfily component.
This module is taught in a concentrated period as the application of a family stress model and communication.
Classes are conducted according to a lecture@discussion format following the attached outline. Depending on time, film excerpts may be shown in class. Extensive focus is placed on the systems implications, family role enactments and long term communication pattems, concepts which tie well to the Double ABCX stress model as well as to the course in general.
Some of these concepts are also noted at other points in the course; during earlier discussions of family rules, secrets and power, applications are made to alcoholic systems. All students participate in class reading and discussion; each is provided with an outline to use during the class. By this point in the term (two-thirds completed) the class is highly participatory. Discussion flows very freely. The dramatism approach generates much discussion since it produces a powerful metaphor thatencourages exploration in a relatively safe manner. Students work through this approach in small groups before general class discussion.
Individual students frequently choose to do their required book review on a related work, such as Elkins, Families Under the Influence, or to write about a related topic for their final term paper. For example, in 1997, 1 received three papers with the following titles: "Developmental Stage and Effects of Alcoholism", "Functional and Dysfunctional Communication Patterns of the Child in the'Responsible'Role in the Alcoholic Family" and 'Alcoholism: How the Covert War Affects Sibling Relationships."
The resource materials are listed at the end of the attached module. In addition to written material the class relies on the film "When a Man Loves a Woman." The dramatistic approach is based on the work of sociologist Erving Goffman.
My purpose is to introduce the concept of alcoholism in families and to expose students to the long term family system effects as well as communication implications of this family stress. Therefore, I am concerned that all students can participate meaningwy in discussions of the impact of alcoholism on farffily interaction patterns using a systems model. Particular students receive extensive evaluation on their work on the topic if they pursue the topic in written assignments.
COMMUNICATION IN THE FAMILY WITH AN ALCOHOLIC MEMBER
Previous Assignment: Watch "When a Man Loves a Woman"
A. Roles of people in "When a Man Loves a Woman" and the communication associated with each role.
B . Myths
If "So and So" stops drinking everything will be fine.Treatment equals a happy life.
Alcoholism is an individual's problem.
Alcoholism is a primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial and envirorunental factors influencing its development and manifestation. The disease is also progressive and fatal. It is characterized by continuous or periodic impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking. Most notably denial.
Daniel Angers, M.D.
The Disease of Chemical Dependency
The Bar Examine
(Feb, 1994) 6-14
Alcoholism is genetically transmitted and/or socially learned. Key is compulsivity.
A codependent person is one who has let another person's behavior affect him or her and who is obsessed with controlling that person's behavior. M. Beattie When two people become co-dependent each Wves the other power over their self esteem (Cermak). Key is reactive rather than active positioning.
Denial involves protecting oneself from unpleasant aspects of life by refusing to perceive, acknowledge, or face them.
Emotional detachment involves changing one's attitude toward alcoholics actions to keep from being drawn into crises of alcoholic's making. Allows alcoholic to solve own problem.
There is no single typology of the dysfunctional family with an alcoholic member, nor does any alcoholic family remain in any stable dysfunctional Alcoholism is a major stress on individual members and the total family. Alcoholism is, an economic drain on family resources, which threatens job security. Drinking behavior may interrupt normal family tasks, cause conflict, and demand adjustive, adaptive responses ftom family members who do not know how to appropriately respond.
Marital and family conflict may evoke, support, and maintain alcoholism as a symptom of family system dysfunction, as a coping mechanism to deal with family dysfunction, and as a consequence of dysfunctional family styles, rules, and patterns of alcohol use...
Family patterns will also vary based on ethnic, cultural, and socioeconomic status, as well as the age and life cycle stage of the alcoholic. Family function and dysfunction also varies when the alcoholic is female rather than male as well as with the role in the family system (e.g., child, parent, or both).
A. Alcoholic Characteristics
Physical & Psychological
B. Alcoholic Family Characteristics
This system becomes functional.
People keep each other in role.
Anger Lack of Trust Emotional Supresssion
C. General Alcoholic Family: Rules (C. Black)
The Family Law: DONT TALK ABOUT THE REAL ISSUES. The real issues are: Mom is drinking again. Dad didn't come home last night. Dad was drunk at the ball game. I had to walk home ftom school because Mom had passed out at home and forgot to come and get me. Some say it is a rule; I believe, for most alcoholic families, it has become law. As one 9-year-old daughter of an alcoholic family said, "When you have a rule in your house for so long, to not talk about dad's drinking, it's r-e-a-1-1-y hard to talk now (even when he is sober)."
It is easier to invent reasons, other than alcoholism, for crazy behavior. If the drinking takes place outside of the home, and dad doesn't act failing-down drunk when he comes home, or if they don't see him when he comes home the children may more readily accept what the other parent tells them--drinking is not the problem.
Another way which helps fancily members rationalize the alcoholic's behavior is for them to not discuss or, in any manner, talk about what's really happening at home. Thirteen-year-old Steve said, "I thought I was going crazy. I thought I was the only one in my house who knew dad was an alcoholic. I didn't know anyone else knew." I asked him why he believed this to be true. He answered, "Because no one else ever said anything."
Children will share the same bedroom with a sibling for years, both hearing the arguing taking place between mom and dad. Or, they hear mom crying night after night. But they only hear, they never speak to one another about it, although they may each cry--silently and alone.
In another fancily, young Billy told me how he was taking the air out of the car tires so his dad wouldn't drive when he was drinking. His youngest sister, Ann, was putting water in dad's vodka bottle- his oldest sister, Lisa, was putting apple cider in dad's whiskey. Each was unaware of the other's actions concerning dad's drinking because they were unable to talk about the real issue--their father's alcoholism.(C. Black)
D. Ties to System Properties
2. Communication Rules
"When a relationship is distorted by an unbalanced dependence, or by suspicion, hostility, excessive demands and expectations, these flaws reveal themselves in the way two people communicate with each other". (AL-ANON Family Group)
A. Husband-Wife Connections
- Over adequate--under adequate (Kramer) Hard for Over adequate to give up "perfection" reinforcement, self worth, etc.
- Marital system must change, not just alcoholic.
- The alcoholic loses his spousal role in areas other than sexual functioning (Kaufinan).
B. Sibling Relations
Siblings in Therapy (Rosalie Jesse)
-living with parental alcoholism presented child with inconsistencies, antagonism & interpersonal ambivalence
-Children (I 15) reported "intense sibling rivalries"
-Keen awareness of family disunity and dissension & separation among brothers & sisters
-After alcoholic parent had been sober several months a former quiescent child would begin to demonstrate increased behavioral and psychological problems. This (1) adds stress and (2) threatens sobriety.
Issue: using "Cognitive" approach Jesse did interviews and found an Unstable Family Constellation. Child displayed a faulty self- identification and was (1) isolated from or (2) in opposition to parents.
-Child did not align with abstinent parent
2. Sibling Bonding:
*Common bond among sitlings
-Compensatory relationships developed
-Firstboms were overwhelmed by parental responsibility-, "parentified" younger children pose threat.of parental ret-ribution-"set up" older sibling.
-Perceived commonality of siblings is clearer in middle years (latency)
-In adolescence bonds may be permanently ruptured
-Children may "align" with the alcoholic. Eg. firstborn daughters and father
-Children may feel unsupported by non alcoholic
-Hard if both parents drink, e.g., Susan Cheever writings
-NB. Only children have little support
-Kaufman found two categories: "good and bad." "Bad" were fellow drug abusers; "good" assumed parental family roles.
A. Spouse Rolel Enabler/Co-dependent
1. General Characteristics
-Avoidance of conflict
-Difficulty in identifying feelings
-Difficulty in expressing feelings
-Feeling overly responsible for other people's feelings and behavior
-Consmt need for approval to feel good about oneself
2. Codependent Rules (Subby)
*It's not okay to talk about problems.
*It's not okay to talk about or express feelings openly.
*Don't address issues or relationships directly.
*Always be strong, always be good, always be perfect.
*Don't be selfish.
*Do as I say, not as I do.
*It's not okay to play.
*Don't rock the boat.
B. Children's Roles (Black, Wegseheider, Woititz)
Roles vary according to author Some people play more than one role, or shift roles. Not all roles are played in all families
1) Hero/Responsible Child
Control!! Mature, serious, goal-oriented Driven, self-disciplined Take-charge, good in school - seeks approval May be caretaker - other parent - other kids Likes structure- Seeks positive attention Wall of defenses Makes family look good
2) The Placater
Most sensitive, charming, involved, caring Caretaker (emotionally) Listening, empathy (nerve endings!) Well-liked - keep everyone happy Gains attention
3) The Adjuster/A Lost Child/Observer
Withdrawn, little attention, feels unimportant Roll with punches - may leave scene or act like nothing is wrong Follower/distant/cool/drifter May be spiritual/creative
4) The Scapegoat/Acting Out Child
Negative attention Reflects chaos of system Low self-esteem; strong peer value Drugs/alcohol/school problems more likely Takes attention from drinker
5) The Mascot/Baby/Clown
Being super-cute Frequently the youngest Rewarded for being funny, positive Fragility/ hyperactivity May be immature
C. Adulthood Roles of Adult Children of Alcoholics (Implications of childhood experiences)
Highly successful Can't relax and have fun No ability to play Not flexible High need for control Hard to be equal - share power Hard to trust someone can do as much Has trouble delegating Drinking may help them relax (Way to feel like kid)
2) Placaters -
Often in helping professions -nurses, social workers, etc. -Put own needs aside -Seek out others who are "takers" -Often don't feel fulfilled -Alcohol may empower them -Often an adult who marries an alcoholic (unconsciously)
-Drifter/follower -Little direction -May move/shift away - few years -Ultra-flexible/little grounding -Difficulty with commitment
-Most likely to be into alcohol/drugs -Chooses unhealthy peers -Low self-esteem -Lack of responsibility
-Expected to be funny/ upbeat -Hard to develop own depth -High insecurity -Relies heavily on feedback of others
* Claudia Black, It Will Never Happen to Me (1982)
* Robert Ackerman, Let Go and Grow (1987)
* Sharon Wegscheider, Adult Children of Alcoholics
* AL-ANON Family Group The Dilemma of the Alcoholic
The alcoholic who is sober and does not want to be is still psychologically drunk and punishes everyone around him because he expects and does not receive exceptional rewards for giving up alcohol.
The romance of sobriety wears off after a while, and the slightest stress will tip him off again. The grief work in giving up alcohol may last for months or years. During this period of prolonged grief and high, unfwfilled expectations, the recovering alcoholic is referred to as a "dry drunk." A dry drunk is an alcoholic who has stopped drinking but continues his unreasonable and manipulative behavior. If the family system is not worked with during this phase of the cycle, and if the family does not learn new patterns of relating to each other to replace those developed during alcoholism, then the suction of the system will draw the alcoholic and his family back to symptomatic consumption of alcohol (Kaufinan and Pattison, 1981).
A. Systems Dynamics
S S S< ---- >A
*Pressure to maintain systemic balance
*Family may push for old balance unless they are part of treatment Spouse may lose role of saint/martyr
B. Recovery Program
2. Self-Help (A.A, Al-Anon, AlaTeen, Alatot) (Family and individual support)
"When a Man Loves a Woman"
This is a second marriage for Alice - Jess is Michael's stepdaughter; Casey is his daughter
-tells Michael how to wrap liquor bottles
-follows Mom around
-takes care of Casey
-focused on school success
-rocking doll and saying "What a good girl" after Mom screams at her
-real need for control
-need to "fix" things fights between girls putting Alice to bed Alice (Mother/Wife/Teacher)
-little girl, "goofy, fun"
-not able to manage well/helpless
-does not get "sucked in"
-foil for rest of family
-Casey asks Dad what is alcoholic. He waffles and is vague. She asks Jess who lays it out "When Mom can't talk right. .
-Alice screams at Jess and Jess rocks doll "You're such a good girl"
-Alice out of control/Mchael as caretaker boat in Mexico
rage at car alarm
Michael takes on solving child conflicts
Alice with rehab cohort
Alice with AA friends
Michael out of control/Aimee detached
The Alcoholic Family (Erving Goffman)
This framework provides family members with an introduction to systems implications in a nonthreatening and accessible manner.
Communication of Performance Team (Goffman)
1. discourages individual public stands
2. avoidance of open disagreement among members especially in public
3. agreement to "fill in" other team members
4. exclude or cover up for unpredictable members "Loose cannons" (alcoholic)
5. major boundary between family and outside world
A. Roles (see above)
B. Setting (Stage)
1. Front space: look good, cover, succeed, help each other, help other parent Mom/Dad's "sick," "out" Keep others out of backspace Write essays on home life which are fiction
2. Back space: clutter, anger, sadness, caretaking, broken promises, double planning honest talk, hunt for bottles, smell the "other"
Office--thermos, contact lens solution bottle
Costume--make everyone "look good"
Makeup- cover bruises
D. Scripts Answers to employers, teachers, extended family
"Trish, I'm calling to say I'm sorry things got out of hand last night. Brad must have been very tired from work. He doeswt usually let his drinks get to him like that."
Mumey in Loving an Alcoholic
--promises to stop- threats if not stop
-outside: extended family, employers, school personnel
-inside: cmdren, younger siblings
Usually co-dependent (spouse) Brings people in line
"The show must go on"
Teamwork: well-oiled machine
Some members don't even know
Put Dad to bed, call Mom's boss, take siblings somewhere, make social excuses, hide keys
Share script - don't serve Dad more beer
-in-laws, others, keep show going
"My dad may be asleep"
Angres, D. The disease of chemical dependency. The Bar Examiner , February 1994.
Asher, R. (1992). Women With Alcoholic Husbands. Chapel Hill, MN: University of Minnesota Press.
Black, C. (1982). It Will Never Happen to Me. NY: Ballantine
Brennan. P., Moos, R. and Kelly, K. (I 994). Spouses of late-life problem drinkers: Functioning, coping responses, and family contexts. Journal of Family Psychology, 8:4, 447-457.
Certnak, T. (1989). A Primer on Adult Children of Alcoholics, (2nd ed.). Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc.
Elkin, M. (1984). Families Under the Influence. New York: W.W. Norton and Company.
Glaser, F., Greenberg, B. and Barrett,M. .(I 978). A Systems Approach to Alcohol Treatment. Toronto, Canada: Addiction Research Foundation.
Grant, C. and Rosenfeld, L. The Effects of Family-of-Origin Alcohol Abuse on Self- Perceived Conununication Competence. Unpublished paper based on Cirant's mastees thesis at the University of South Florida.
Gravitz, H. and Bowden, J. (1987). Recovery: A Guide for Adult Children of Alcoholics. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Jesse, R. (1988). Children of alcoholics: Their sibling world. In M. Kahn and L. Lewis (F,ds.), Siblings in Therapy: Life Span and Clinical Issues. New York: W.W. Norton. 228- 252
Kaufman, E. (1985). Family systems and family therapy of substance abuse: An overview of two decades of research and clinical experience. International Journal of the Addictions. 20: 897-916.
Kritsberg, W. (1988). The Adult Children of Alcoholics Syndrom . New York: Bantam Books.
Milam, J. and Ketchnam, K. (1981). Under the Influence. NY: Bantam
Radomsky, N. (1992). The association of parental alcoholism and rigidity with chronic illness and abuse among women The Journal of Family Practice 35:1.
Seibold, D and Thomas, R. (1994). Rethinking the role of interpersonal influence processes in alcohol intervention situations. Journal of Applied Communication Research. 22: 177-197.
Woititz, J. (1983). Adult Children of Alcoholics. Deerfield Beach, FL: Health Communications, Inc.
A COURSE MODULE FOR A PANEL PRESENTATION ASSIGNMENT IN GROUP COMMUNICATION
Hartel Assistant Professor
Cardinal Stritch University
This group project is the major assignment in CA 210 Group Communication. The work on this panel presentation begins the first day of class and the final portion of the panel is presented and critiqued during the final exam period. Through the accomplishment of the various stages of this assignment, students have the opportunity to develop and strengthen many communication skills as well as to build the content foundation for beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions on alcohol and drug related issues.
Because research has identified that simply educating students about the variety of abused drugs, their pharmalogical effects, and the associated risks has shown no overall benefit in changing attitudes and behaviors (.Perkins, 1935- 1986a; 1986b; 1988; 1989; Kraft, 1988- Oblander, 1984), this module focuses on students developing, articulating, and critiquing self-researched and self-constructed arguments on AOD use. It is this instructor's contention that these self-researched and self- constructed arguments that are preseeted in a public forum for discussion and analysis will result in the creation of individual cognitive schemata of strong interconnected beliefs, attitudes, and behavioral intentions related to AOD issues. This connection is based on the premises that 1) if ideas are discussed in a public forum, the best ideas will be made evident, and 2) if an individual must create their own arguments self-persuasion can and does occur. The key component to this module is the students' active involvement in research, argument development, argument analysis, argument articulation, and argument evaluation.
Upon completion of this module, participants will demonstrate knowledge based on...
1.an understanding of the specific content of individual AOD research (statistics, expert opinions, case studies).
2. an understanding of the specific content of the information presented in the other panel presentations.
3 . an ability to identify the impact AOD has on individuals and society..
4. an ability to reflect on the impact AOD has on them or could have on them in the future.
5. the experience of describing and developing appropriate action plans to address the harmful effects of AOD.
Upon the completion of this module, participants will demonstrate attitudes that indicate...
1. confidence in articulating an argument on AOD issues.
2. confidence in their ability to support their opinions (claims) with credible and valid evidence.
3 . confidence in their ability to locate and comprehend a variety of resources on AOD issues.
4. appreciation for the benefits of group exploration of ideas.
5. respect for the ideas of others.
6. respect for the difficulty and many perspectives on AOD issues.
Upon the completion of this module, participants will demonstrate '5@ indicating their capacity to...
1. construct an argument
2. analyze and critique the evidence, reasoning, and reservations of their own arguments as well as those of others.
3. discuss AOD issues from a variety of perspectives.
4. explain and defend their position on AOD use.
5. listen and comprehend the positions of others.
6. engage in rational and logical discussion on AOD issues.
1. Panel presentation groups will select their own AOD topic for discussion. Groups will also develop their own group agenda of specific questions to be addressed during the discussion. These group agendas will reflect content teamed through text reading, class lectures, and activities.
2. individual group members will engage in research to build expertise on AOD issues. These resources will be shared and discussed with fellow.panel participants.
3. Individual group members will construct an individual agendalbrief which will function as their foundation for discussion. These briefs will address every possible discussion question in the group agenda from every possible perspective. Each answer (claim) must be supported with sufficient quantity and quality of evidence. It is vital that the briefs be well-rounded with a complete analysis of the issues as the function of the panel presentation iq to inform the audience and to build the expertise of the participants. Group members must understand the reasoning and evidence of claims other than their own opinions, as the best way to defend one's own position is to know the strength and weaknesses of the opposing arguments.
These briefs will be carefully read, critiqued, and evaluated by the instructor. Students will have the opportunity to redo and resubmit these briefs if they are unsatisfied with the evaluation/grade.
4. The instructor will deliver a lecture, followed by a discussion and series of activities which will build the students' understanding of the characteristics of an effective panel presentation.
5 . The panel presentation will engage in a round table format to practice effective panel discussion techniques.
6. The panel presentation will be completed in two phases. Phase One will not be graded; Phase Two will be. Phase One will last approximately 20-25. minutes. It will be followed with a critique session where the panel itself gets to identify their strengths and weaknesses and the class responds to these and adds their own observations. The audience completes a written evaluation and these are graded according to specificity and usefulness of observations. The panel presentation groups aregiven an "Evaluation-Skill Building" packet consisting of a videotape of their presentation, critiques completed by the instructor and the class, and the detailed observations of the instructor. This packet is then reviewed by the participants and serves as the foundation for further growth and behavioral changes.
7. After all of the panel presentation Phase One's are completed, the instructor will address questions posed by the class. Further discussion of effective panel presentations will also occur. This is also a time when discussion of AOD content presented during the panel presentations can be explored.
8. Phase Two of the panel presentations are completed during the last class period and the final exam period. Phase Two begins with the panels identifying what they focused on for improvement during this round and ends with a critique session focusing specifically on these goals. Evaluation forms are completed by all and given to the panel presentation groups Phase Two is followed by a forum where the audience asks questions of the panel participants. The panel grade is the totaling of the group grade and the individual grade. The group grade is the grade given to the panel presentations. The individual grade is the result of the grade given the brief, the evaluation of fellow participants supplied on the confidential evaluation "Group Presentation: Evaluation of Individual Performance During Pre-Presentation Meetings" as well as instructor decisions regarding individual performance during the panel (specifically growth of skill competencies).
9. Students complete a reflection on what they have learned about AOD through the panel assignment. A large class discussion is also held.
The dominant means of assessment used to determine the effectiveness of the panel presentation assignment are the final reflection papers students write, their comments on the final evaluation for the course, and the information they share during the debriefing of the activity during the last class period.
The Written and oral comments have reflected the dominant themes of. 1) student confidence in their ability to articulate arguments about AOD issues,2) student inereas .ed awareness of the complexity of AOD issues, 3) student increased knowledge about the short term and long term effects of AOD use, and 4) student intention to share their knowledge and "hard data" in a variety of venues--sharing with friends and family, presenting in other classes, and using it in future careers and family situations.
Documents provided in class.
Kraft, David P. 1988. "The Prevention and treatment of Alcohol Problems on a College Campus." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education- 34:37-51
Oblander, F.W. 1984. "A Practice Oriented Synthesis: Effective Alcohol Education Strategies." ACU-1 Bulletin (October): 17-23.
Perkins, H. Wesley. 1985. "Religious Traditions. Parents and Peers as Determinants of Alcohol and Drug Use Among College Students." Review of Religious Research 27:15-31
Perkins, H. Wesley and Alan D. Berkowitz. 1986a. "Perceiving the Community Norms of Alcohol Use Among Students: Some Research Implications for Campus Alcohol Education Programniing." International Journal of the Addictions 21:961-976
Perkins, H. Wesley and Alan D. Berkowitz. 1986b. "Using Student Alcohol Surveys: Notes in Clinical and Educational Program Applications." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 31: 44-51
Perkins, H. Wesley and Alan D. Berkowitz. 1988. Campus Involvement. Role Modeling and Health Related Behaviors: Are They Related? Presented at the Annual Convention of the American College Personnel Association, Miami, Florida, March 20-23
Perkins, H. Wesley and Alan D. Berkowitz. 1989. "Stability and Contradiction in College Students' Drinking Following a Drinking-Age Law Change." Journal of Alcohol and Drug Education 35: 60-77
POSSIBLE PANEL PRESENTATION TOPICS
Claims of Fact: What are the health-related concequenses of AOD use?
What is the relationship of ethnicity and AOD use? (European Americans, African Americans, Native Americans, etc.)
What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and STD's (sexually transnfitted diseases?)
What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and AIDS?
What is the relationship between alcohol consumption and acquaintance rape?
What is the role of environment, socialization, and biology in addiction?
How much (if any) use of alcohol and drugs is safe (or even beneficial)? (possible Claim of Value)
Why do we use alcohol and drugs?
What is the relationship between self-esteem and AOD use? AOD and the Campus: Is alcohol use really a problem?
What are the consequences of AOD use for women?
The addictive personality: Who uses drugs and why?
How does religion and religious beliefs influence AOD use?
What is the experience of the ACOA (Adult Child of the Alcoholic)?
What is the experience of the famfly member of the addict?
Are we over-focusing on college students and their AOD use: perceived vs. Actual AOD use? (Possible Claim of Value)
Claims of Value: Is the Health Care Industry tackling AOD use effectively?
Are alcohol and drug rehabilitation programs working?
Are alcohol and drug awareness programs working?
What are the effective prevention techniques for battling AOD use on the college campus? (Possible Claim of Policy)
What are the effective prevention techniques for battling AOD use in the workplace? (Possible Claim of Policy)
Claims of Policy:
Should there be mandatory drug testing?
What can be done to prevent AOD abuse?
Should drugs be legalized?
Should drunk-driving laws be made stricter?
Should the drinking age be lowered?
Some Guidelines for Speaking During a Panel Discussion
1. Begin statements with your claim. (i.e. "There is a strong case to make for AOD advertising resulting in AOD use.")
2. Avoid beginning statements with your documentation and evidence. (i.e. "According to this one article in the New York Times that showed some research...")
3. Follow up your claim with evidence and documentation or documentation and evidence. (i.e. "AOD advertising has been linked to AOD use. A study comparing... was reported in the New York Times last year.") (i.e. "AOD advertising has been linked to AOD use. The New York lim@@s reported a study that...")
4. Provide some type of documentation on your sources. This documentation could be author, author with credibility, date of publication, source, etc. (i.e. "The Surgeon General reports..." "In a letter published in the New York Times OP Ed page..." "In a 1933 issue of the New England QlAarterly Journal of Medicine..." "According to Kevin Dobson, Director of the AOD Awareness Institute in Washington D. C ...... "The PBS program Firina Line interviewed Janet Reno who..."
5. Paraphrase what others have said before presenting own claim. (i.e. "What I hear you saying SW, is that you could not find a source who made a strong AOD advertising AOD usage linkage. Although 1, too, had difficulty finding direct quotes, I did find that...") (i.e. "Chris and Kin-4 you both appear to have found powerful quotes which support the need for government regulation of AOD advertising in order to ffihibit AOD use in inner cities. I have found some research that argues the opposing side--that government regulation of AOD advertising violates the right to free speech...")
6. Question the information of others. (i.e. "Kim, could you give me an example of one of these harmful effects?) (i.e. "Emily, who is the source of the last statistic you gave?") (i.e. "Canunie, you said there were over one million cases of drug- related crimes. Is this an increase or decrease from ten years ago?")
7. Provide a specific summary after the discussion of each agenda question. These summaries should reflect the actual content of the discussion. This responsibility can be shared by all group members by assigning each question to an individual in the group.
8. Provide specific examples to help clarify abstract concepts. (i.e. "It sounds as if.. a are related in some way to AOD advertising. Would it be fair to say that AOD advertising is hurting the family through increased job loss, violence, and decreased sense of social responsibility?")
Individual Agenda/Brief Evaluation Form - CA 210
_______ Organized Appropriately (Question, Claims, Evidence, Documentation)
_______Complete (All components are present.)
_______Quantity and Quality of Claims (All possible answers for each question are represented in claims).
_______Quantity and Quality of Evidence (A sufficient amount of relevant and suitable evidence).
_______Readability (Claims and evidence are clearly identified, bibliography is complete.)
Panel Presentations (as explained in the Course Syllabus)
The panel presentations should be organized according to a series of appropriate questions reflecting one of the Panel Discussion Agendas (Chapter 3) and should demonstrate sound understanding of group communication and the particular topic being discussed.
The presentation should be 40-60 minutes in length and should address a controversial topic on alcohol and drug issues which requires group research. It is not expected that the entire agenda will necessarily be covered in this time. The trial (Round 1) presentation will present the first part of the agenda, (20-25 minutes)-, the final (Round 2) (20-30 minutes) presentation will pick up where the trial presentation ended.
Before presenting the trial panel discussion (Round #1), each group must present to the instructor a typed or carefully written sheet including the following information:
2. Topic (phrased as a claim of fact, value, or policy)
3 .Discussion questions (group agenda)
4. Comprehensive bibliography of sources
Groups are advised to have the instructor review the group agenda as early as possible so that changes can be made.
After presenting the panel discussion (trial), each group member must present to the instructor their individual brief for the discussion. This brief must be detailed and fouow the guidelines provided in Chapter 4 of the text as well as those provided in class. The individual brief will be organized into 1) group discussion questions, 2) claims, reflecting every possible answer to each discussion question, 3) a sufficient quantity of evidence with documentation to support each claim. These agendas may be typed, hand written, or may use a variety of techniques including "cut and paste". The goal of the agenda is to create a document that is very functional during the panel discussions.
These individual briefs will be evaluated after Round #I and returned to their author. If all criteria of an agenda are fiNUed, the author need not redo or resubmit the work. If the brief fas to meet the criteria, it will be necessary for the author to rework and resubmit the brief before Panel Discussion Round #2.
A very thorough critique session will follow Panel Presentation 91. The first group presentation will be videotaped so that group members may view it, evaluate their performance, and make changes for the second presentation.
Grading will be done on both an individual and group basis. The individual grade will reflect quality of individual brief and individual performance during presentation. The first presentation will not be graded, but the second one will be.